Spring Boot and Database initialization

Spring boot is hands down a great framework, saving the developer a lot of time and energy when developing a spring application.

One of its great features is database initialization.
You can use spring boot in order to initialize your sql database.

We will start with the gradle file

group 'com.gkatzioura'
version '1.0-SNAPSHOT'

apply plugin: 'java'

sourceCompatibility = 1.5

buildscript {
    repositories {
        mavenCentral()
    }
    dependencies {
        classpath("org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-gradle-plugin:1.3.3.RELEASE")
    }
}

apply plugin: 'idea'
apply plugin: 'java'
apply plugin: 'spring-boot'

repositories {
    mavenCentral()
} 

dependencies {
    compile("org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-web") {
        exclude module: "spring-boot-starter-tomcat"
    }
    compile("org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-jetty")
    compile("org.springframework:spring-jdbc")
    compile("org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-actuator")
    compile("com.h2database:h2:1.4.191")
    testCompile group: 'junit', name: 'junit', version: '4.11'
}

Pay special attention to the org.springframework:spring-jdbc dependency. Actually this is the dependency that assists with the database initialization.
H2 database is more than enough for this example.

The applications main class

package com.gkatzioura.bootdatabaseinitialization;

import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.context.ApplicationContext;

/**
 * Created by gkatzioura on 29/4/2016.
 */
@SpringBootApplication
public class Application {

    public static void main(String[] args) {

        SpringApplication springApplication = new SpringApplication();
        ApplicationContext applicationContext = springApplication.run(Application.class,args);
    }

}

The next step is to specify the datasource

package com.gkatzioura.bootdatabaseinitialization.config;

import org.h2.jdbcx.JdbcDataSource;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Primary;

import javax.naming.Context;
import javax.naming.InitialContext;
import javax.naming.NamingException;
import javax.sql.DataSource;

/**
 * Created by gkatzioura on 29/4/2016.
 */
@Configuration
public class DataSourceConfig {

    private static final String TEMP_DIRECTORY = System.getProperty("java.io.tmpdir");

    @Bean(name = "mainDataSource")
    public DataSource createMainDataSource() {

        JdbcDataSource ds = new JdbcDataSource();
        ds.setURL("jdbc:h2:"+TEMP_DIRECTORY+"/testdata;MODE=MySQL");
        return ds;
    }

}

We will add a schema.sql file to the resource folder so it would be loaded to classpath. The schema.sql file would contain all the table definitions needed for our database.

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS `Users` (
    `user_id` bigint(20) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
    `name` varchar(200) NOT NULL,
    PRIMARY KEY (`user_id`)
);

Next file to add is data.sql on the resources folder. This file will contain the sql statements needed to populate our database.

INSERT INTO `Users` (`user_id`,`name`) VALUES (null,'nick');
INSERT INTO `Users` (`user_id`,`name`) VALUES (null,'george');

On initialization spring boot will search for the data.sql and schema.sql files and execute them with the Database initializer.

So far so good, however when you have two datasources defined, things get complicated.
We shall add a secondary datasource

package com.gkatzioura.bootdatabaseinitialization.config;

import org.h2.jdbcx.JdbcDataSource;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Primary;

import javax.naming.Context;
import javax.naming.InitialContext;
import javax.naming.NamingException;
import javax.sql.DataSource;

/**
 * Created by gkatzioura on 29/4/2016.
 */
@Configuration
public class DataSourceConfig {

    private static final String TEMP_DIRECTORY = System.getProperty("java.io.tmpdir");

    @Bean(name = "mainDataSource")
    public DataSource createMainDataSource() {

        JdbcDataSource ds = new JdbcDataSource();
        ds.setURL("jdbc:h2:"+TEMP_DIRECTORY+"/testdata;MODE=MySQL");
        return ds;
    }

    @Bean(name = "secondaryDataSource")
    public DataSource createSecondaryDataSource() {

        JdbcDataSource ds = new JdbcDataSource();
        ds.setURL("jdbc:h2:"+TEMP_DIRECTORY+"/secondarydata;MODE=MySQL");
        return ds;
    }
}

By starting the application we get an error

Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.NoUniqueBeanDefinitionException: No qualifying bean of type [javax.sql.DataSource] is defined: expected single matching bean but found 2: mainDataSource,secondaryDataSource

The problem is that the datasource initializer gets injected with a datasource. So we have to specify the datasource inject or else we will get an exception.
A workaround is to specify which datasource bean is the primary one.

    @Bean(name = "mainDataSource")
    @Primary
    public DataSource createMainDataSource() {

        JdbcDataSource ds = new JdbcDataSource();
        ds.setURL("jdbc:h2:"+TEMP_DIRECTORY+"/testdata;MODE=MySQL");
        return ds;
    }

By doing so the initializer will run the schema.sql and data.sql scripts using the mainDataSource bean.

Another great feature of spring boot database is initialization is that it can be integrated with flyway. Get more information on flyway here.

You can find the project source code here

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